All history has been a history of class struggles between dominated classes at various stages of social development.
Friedrich Engels (1820 - 1895) was a German writer, and a close friend and collaborator with Karl Marx. On moving to England, he was shocked by the poverty he found, which resulted in 'The Condition of the Working Class in England'. He co-operated with Marx in writing 'The Communist Manifesto', and after Marx's death, Engels assembled the second and third volumes of 'Das Kapital'.
Friedrich Engels, the eldest son of a successful German industrialist, was born in Barmen on 28th November 1820. As a young man his father sent him to England to help manage his cotton-factory in Manchester. He was shocked by the poverty in the city and began writing an account that was published as The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844).
In 1844 Engels began contributing to a radical journal called Franco-German Annals that was being edited by Karl Marx in Paris. Later that year Engels met Marx and the two men became close friends. Marx and Engels decided to work together. It was a good partnership. Whereas Marx was at his best when dealing with difficult abstract concepts, Engels had the ability to write for a mass audience.
While working on their first article together, The Holy Family, the Prussian authorities put pressure on the French government to expel Karl Marx from the country. On 25th January 1845, Marx received an order deporting him from France. Marx and Engels decided to move to Belgium, a country that permitted greater freedom of expression than any other European state. Friedrich Engels helped to financially support Marx and his family. Engels gave Marx the royalties of his book, TheCondition of the Working Class in England and arranged for other sympathizers to make donations. This enabled Marx to study and develop his economic and political theories.
In July 1845 Engels took Karl Marx to England. They spent most of the time consulting books in Manchester Library. Engels and Marx returned to Brussels and in January 1846 they set up a Communist Correspondence Committee. Engels returned to England in December 1847 where he attended a meeting of the Communist League’s Central Committee in London. At the meeting it was decided that the aims of the organisation was “the overthrow of the bourgeoisie, the domination of the proletariat, the abolition of the old bourgeois society based on class antagonisms, and the establishment of a new society without classes and without private property”.
Engels and Marx began writing a pamphlet together. Based on a first draft produced by Engels called the Principles of Communism, Marx finished the 12,000 word pamphlet in six weeks. Unlike most of Marx’s work, it was an accessible account of communist ideology. Written for a mass audience, The Communist Manifesto summarised the forthcoming revolution and the nature of the communist society that would be established by the proletariat. The Communist Manifestowas published in February, 1848. The following month, the government expelled Engels and Marx from Belgium.
Marx and Engels visited Paris before moving to Cologne where they founded a radical newspaper, New Rhenish Gazette. The men hoped to use the newspaper to encourage the revolutionary atmosphere that they had witnessed in Paris. Engels helped form an organisation called the Rhineland Democrats. On 25th September, 1848, several of the leaders of the group were arrested. Engels managed to escape but was forced to leave the country. Karl Marx continued to publish the New Rhenish Gazette until he was expelled in May, 1849. Engels and Marx then moved to London.
In order to help supply Karl Marx with an income, Engels returned to work for his father in Germany. The two kept in constant contact and over the next twenty years they wrote to each other on average once every two days. Friedrich Engels sent postal orders or £1 or £5 notes, cut in half and sent in separate envelopes. In this way the Marx family was able to survive.
Other books published by Engels include The Peasant Warin Germany (1850), Anti-Dühring (1878) and the Origin of the Family, Private Property andthe State (1884).Karl Marx died in London in March, 1883. Engels devoted the rest of his life to editing and translating Marx’s writings. This included the second volume of Das Kapital (1885). Engels then used Marx’s notes to write the third volume that was published in 1894. Friedrich Engels died in London on 5th August 1895.