Benedict de Spinoza - Benedict de Spinoza
1632-1677
Dutch
Those who are believed to be most abject and humble are usually most ambitious and envious.

Benedict Spinoza

Benedictus de Spinoza (1632 - 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese-Jewish origin. While living quietly, working as a lens grinder, Spinoza wrote of highly controversial ideas which saw him expelled from his community. His 'Ethics', published posthumously, led him to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy, laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism. Spinoza is considered to be one of Western philosophy's most important philosophers.

Books by Benedict Spinoza